Different Forms of Durga
Goddess Durga’s first form amongst the nine is Sailaputri. She was nomenclatured as Sailaputri after being born in the house of the king of the mountains, Himalaya. In this mold the mother is seen holding a Trishula(Trident) in her right hand and a Lotus in her left and she is mounted on an Ox. In her past life she was the daughter of Daksha, the son of Lord Brahma. She was known as Sati then. As the daughter of Daksha she was married to the God of Gods, Mahadeva.
Daksha once arranged for a ceremony of holy fire (Yagna), and chose not to invite his daughter and son-in-law. Sati was restless to join the ceremony at her Father’s place and being obstinate, she reached there.
On going uninvited to the ceremony, she felt that everyone was giving her a cold shoulder except her Mother who greeted her with a hug. The guests too present in the function were giving disrespectful comments about her Husband. To her surprise her father too was harsh and rude in his approach. She was dejected and was so heart broken that she burnt herself to ash in the holy fire. Shiva, on hearing this incident was enraged and ordered his followers to immediately demolish the Daksha Yagna.
After burning herself to death, Sati was reborn as the daughter of the king of the mountains, Himalaya and became known as Sailaputri. Thus amongst all the nine forms of Devi Durga, Sailaputri is the most powerful and glorified of all. She is worshiped in the first day of the Navratri celebrations. According to the Upanishads this form of Durga broke the pride of the Gods by assuming the mold of Haimabati. Being ashamed they bowed and prayed that, “Thou are Shakti, we all – Brahma, Vishnu and Shiv get Shakti from you.”
Durga’s second appearance is in the form of Brahmacharini. Here “Brahma” means meditation. That is, the Goddess is the meditator or a practitioner of penance. She is seen here holding a string of rosary beads in her right hand and a Kamandul (an urn containing holy water) in her left hand. In her previous life, when she was reborn as the daughter of Himalaya, she performed severe penance to have Mahadeva as her husband. The sage God Narad advised her to take up meditation to win Shiva. For undergoing strict meditation she was known as Brahmacharini or Tapasyacharini. Ignoring the beating sun and thunder showers, she began a Three Hundred year meditation living only on wood Apple leaves that fell on the forest floor. She furthered her penance making it even stricter by relinquishing food and water for another few Hundred years. As she gave up eating leaves she is also referred to as “Aparna”. Practicing this painstaking contemplation she became weak and skinny. Unable to withstand the plight of her daughter her mother, Manoka requested her to give up her resolution. Shocked at the sight of Durga she exclaimed “ U ma! Na aar naa”. That is why Durga is also called “Uma”.
On the other hand overwhelmed by Durga’s devotion and perseverance, all the Gods and sages in the heaven were pleased. At last, grandfather Brahma, pleased with devi’s austerities made an oracle, “O maiden! No one could achieve or endure the penance you have performed till date. I am captivated by your meditation and devotion. Your wish will be fulfilled and you will certainly have Shiva as your husband. You may now return home and rest. Your father will come soon to take you.”This form of Durga gives the devotees everlasting success. Worshop of this appearance enriches the faculties of sacrifice, honesty and self-discipline. In times of utter distress the worship of this form gives success and the willpower to come out victorious. This form of Durga is worshiped in the second day of the Durga puja.
Mother Durga’s third form is known as Chandraghanta. This name finds its justification in the half moon seen on the temple of the Goddess that resembles a bell. The deity has ten arms. The ten hands of the Goddess brandish ten different weapons. Mounted on a lion this form of the mother is worshiped on the third day of the Navratri celebration. It is believed that a devotee who manages to earn the devi’s blessings can set himself free from his sins and hazards that he has committed or may face in his life. The devotee gains the power to sense the supernatural, to see it and even smell the eternal fragrance. The deity is always envisaged in the fearsome mood of demolishing the evil, her appearance always spreads a calm and eternal peace all round. Mother Chandraghant’s devotees spread peace and happiness wherever they go. We should all whole-heartedly worship the mother with a devoted soul. Worship of the deity helps one eliminate the sorrow, hazards and dangers in ones life.
The fourth appearance of the devi is in the form of Kushmanda. The mother gets the name as she created the universe with a smile. When there was darkness everywhere and there was no existence of the universe she created the universe with a smile. She is believed to be the source of eternal power. The Goddess has eight arms and that is why she is also known as “Astabhuja”. The deity’s seven hands hold the holy urn (Kamandul), a Bow, an Arrow, a Lotus, a Pot containing nectar, a Sudarshan Chakra and a Club. The Eighth hand holds a string of rosary beads that is believed to provide success and prudence. Pumpkin is termed as “Kushmando” in Sanskrit. Amongst the sacrificial vegetables that are offered in the worship of the Goddess (naibidhya), pumpkin is the most important vegetable with which Devi Kushmanda is most placated. She is worshiped on the Fourth day of the Navratri celebration abiding by the rituals that are described in the Sashtra and the Purans. Worship of this form of the Devi exterminates sorrow and diseases and augments life, fame and strength. Mother Goddess is appeased with the slightest of devotion and if any one whole-heartedly worships the deity he will certainly gain her favour.
Fifth form of the mother is known as Skandamata. Kumar Kartik’s other name is Skanda. As devi Durga is the mother of Kartik, she is referred to as “Skandamata”. This form of the deity has four arms. The mother is seen holding her son Skanda with the top right hand and she is holding a lotus in her lower hand. The top left hand is positioned in a blessing gesture and the other hand holds a lotus. The Goddess is fair and sits on a lotus.
That is why the devi is also known as “Padmasana”. Here she is seen mounted on a lion. If anyone worships her whole-heartedly, she fulfills the wish of the devotee.
Kattayani is the sixth form of Devi Durga. Sage “Kattayan” was the son of the great sage “Kat”. Sage “Kattayan” was born in the “Kattya” clan. He was engaged in rigorous penance and worship of “Bhagabati Paramba”. His prayer was all about requesting the mother to appear in his house-hold as his daughter. Mother “Bhagabati” obliged him. After some time, when, the world was terrorized of Mahisasura, lord Brahma, Vishnu and Maheshwara with their divine powers gave form to a Goddess to combat Asura and destroy him. Kattayan was the first to worship her and that is why she is known as “Devi Kattayani”. It is mentioned in the Shastra that Kattayani was born as the daughter of the sage Kattayan. Taking birth on the Fourteenth day of the new moon in “Ashwin” (September-October), she accepted the worship of the sage Kattayan on Saptami, Astami and Navami and ultimately slew Mahisasura on Dashami. The deity’s complexion is as bright as Gold. She has four hands. The top right hand is positioned in a gesture of providing courage and the other hand is positioned in a gesture of rendering a boon. The top left hand is holding a Sword and the other holding a Lotus. The Goddess is mounted on a Lion and she is worshiped on the sixth day of the Durga puja. If one worships the deity with a pure soul he attains success in religion, wealth, passion and salvation. Disease, sorrow and fear are eliminated. Worship of this deity helps one to emancipate himself from the sin he may have committed over the cycle of his births and rebirths. We should all devote our prayers to the mother to lead a better life.
Mother Goddess’s seventh form is “Kalratri”. Her complexion is as dark as the night. Her cascading hair is let loose and she is seen wearing a garland that radiates light as bright as lightning. She is fearsome with her menacing three eyes, radiating fire. She is mounted on an ass. She has four hands, of which, the top right hand is in a gesture of rendering boon to all. The other hand on her right is rendering fearlessness. The top left hand is holding an iron Dagger and the other hand is holding a Sickle. Although she has a menacing appearance, she always delivers favorable results and her devotees need not fear.
She is worshiped on the seventh day of the Durga puja. Devi Kalratri destroys the evil. If anyone whole-heartedly pleads of saving himself from any impending danger, she protects him. As and when the Goddess is called, the evils instantaneously disappear from the place. By the Goddess’s grace, the devotees overcome their fear of fire, water, animals and foes.
Mother’s eighth form is known as “Mahagauri”. Her complexion is extremely fair. Her garments are also white. She is mounted on an ox and has four hands. Her top right hand is rendering fearlessness and the hand below holds a trident. The top left hand holds a “Damru” and the hand below is in a gesture of giving a boon. To have Shiva as her husband she went through a rigorous penance in the form of “Parvati”. As a result of this arduous meditation her complexion turned dark. Lord Shiva, pleased with the devotion of Parvati, bathed her in the holy water of the Ganges. As she bathed in the holy water she turned fair. From then onwards she became known as “Mahagouri”. She is worshiped on the eighth day of the Durga puja. The devotee is benefited on all fronts as he worships the deity. Due to the Goddess’s grace the devotee attains supernatural salvation, he is relieved from all his pains and fatigue and can set himself free from his previous sins. He is never faced with sorrow and poverty and never commits any sin. The devotee wins pure and endless virtue.
Durga’s ninth mold is the form of “Siddhidatri”. She delivers success. According to “Markendeo Puran” there are eight types of success, such as “Anima”, “Laghima”, “Prapti”, “Prakashya”, “Mahima”, “Ishhattya”, “Bashittya”, “Sarvakaam bashayita” and “Sarvagyata”. But in the “Brahmabaibarta Puran” in the “SriKrishna Janmakhanda” there are another ten types of success such as “Dursravan”, “Parakayaprabeshan”, “Baksiddhi”, “Kalpabrikkhatta”, “Sristi”, “Sanharkaransamartha”, “Amaratta”, “Sarvanyaykatta”, “Bhavna” and “Siddhi”. Thus there are eighteen types of successes. Mother Siddhidatri is capable of rendering all these forms of successes to her devotees. According to the Purans, Lord Shiva achieved salvation by the grace of this deity. The deity is seen sometimes sitting on a lotus and sometimes mounted on a lion. She is four armed. The lower right hand of the Goddess holds a disc and the upper right hand holds a club. The lower left hand holds a Shankha(conch shell) and the upper hand holds a Lotus. She is worshipped on the ninth day of the Durga puja. She is the ultimate form of the Goddess among the Navadurga. After having performing the Puja of the other forms of the Goddess according to the rituals mentioned in the Sashtra, the devotee can then start the worship of this Deity. Those who worship the Goddess with full devotion are bestowed with all the success.